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The collar bone (clavicle), the shoulder blade (scapula) and the upper-arm bone (humerus) are the three bones which form part of the shoulder along with the tendons, ligaments and muscles. The most important shoulder joint is the glenohumeral joint followed by the acromioclavicular (AC) joint.

The coracromial ligament is located on top of the head of the humerus. This arch is made up the following structures: the Acromioclavicular joint, the Acromion, the Coracromial ligament (going from the anterolateral aspect of the coracoid process to the anteroinferior side of the acromion) and the Coracoid process.

Inside this vaulted arch are the rotator cuff and the long head of the biceps (LHB). The rotator cuff is made up of the four muscle tendons running from the scapula and inserted into the greater tubercle and the lesser tubercle. These muscles are the subscapularis, the supraspinatus, the infraspinatus and the teres minor. The function of the rotator cuff is to counter the action of the deltoid muscle which tends to elevate the humerus and thus stabilise the shoulder joint. During the 60º movement this torque force causes the humeral head to rotate. At the same time the rotator cuff performs external flexion and rotation.

The tendon pertaining to the long section of the biceps is inserted into the supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula. This fits between the supraspinatus and subscapularis muscles. The long tendon of the biceps should be considered from a functional point of view as part of the rotator cuff.

The Arthroscopic Surgery Unit has a team of specialist surgeons to attend to patients with articular (joint) and periarticular problems. It also has a team of nurses and physiotherapists responsible for reducing recovery times which monitors and supervises patients at all times.

The UCA is a pioneer in the biological treatment of arthrosis injuries using Plasma Rich in Growth Factors (PRGF®-Endoret®) Technology.